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    Comparative transcriptome analysis of basal and zygote-located tip regions of peanut ovaries provides insight into the mechanism of light regulation in peanut embryo and pod development

    Abstract: Peanut zygotes typically divide a few times to form a pre-embryo before further embryonic development halts under normal day/night photoperiods. Ovary elongation, however, continues forming a downward growing peg-like structure. When the peg is buried in the soil, embryo development resumes in the darkness. The embryo located region (ER) of the peg begins to enlarge and form a pod, while the basal region (BR) of the peg has a distinct fate. The molecular mechanisms governing these unique embryo development processes are unknown. In this study, histological analysis demonstrated that from 4 days after pollination to 3 days after soil penetration, the peanut pre-embryo remained morphologically similar. By 9 days after soil penetration, the embryo had changed to a globular embryo. Transcriptome analysis revealed differentially expressed genes in the ER and BR before and after peg soil penetration. In addition to light signaling and plant hormone metabolism genes, we identified differentially expressed genes in the ER that contribute to embryo development and pod formation processes, including MADS-box transcription factors, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein, cellulose synthase, homeobox-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein family genes, amino acid permease, and seed growth and embryo morphogenesis regulators (DA1, TCP3, and YABBY). A large number of genes were found to be differentially expressed in the ER and BR across three developmental peg stages. Exact changes in gene expression were also identified in the ER during early embryo and pod development. This information provides an expanded knowledgebase for understanding the mechanisms of early peanut pod formation.

    Authors:Ye Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Han Xia, Chuanzhi Zhao, Lei Hou, Changsheng Li, Chao Gao, Shuzhen Zhao*, Xingjun Wang*
    * Correspondence: shuzhen51@126.com, xingjunw@hotmail.com;
    BMC Genomics, 2016, 17:606
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